Skip to main content


NVN Ark Youtube Channel

Recent posts

iMade Online Store

Please go to our Store. Check it out

Keyboard shortcuts to memorize and use

Below are some Keyboard shortcuts we recommend everyone memorize and use. Ctrl + C or Ctrl + Insert and Ctrl + X Both Ctrl + C and Ctrl + Insert will copy the highlighted text or selected item. If you want to cut instead of copy press Ctrl + X  

Organised the cables 3

The way the cables are organised

Organised the cables 2

The way the cables are organised

Organised the cables 1

The way the cables are organised

TCP/IP Model Layers

The TCP/IP model uses four layers that logically span the equivalent of the top six layers of the OSI reference model; this is shown in Figure. (The physical layer is not covered by the TCP/IP model because the data link layer is considered the point at which the interface occurs between the TCP/IP stack and the underlying networking hardware.) The following are the TCP/IP model layers, starting from the bottom. Network Interface Layer As its name suggests, this layer represents the place where the actual TCP/IP protocols running at higher layers interface to the local network. This layer is somewhat “controversial” in that some people don't even consider it a “legitimate” part of TCP/IP. This is usually because none of the core IP protocols run at this layer. Despite this, the network interface layer is part of the architecture. It is equivalent to the data link layer (layer two) in the OSI Reference Model and is also sometimes called the link layer. You may also